Steven R Goldstein MD is a NYC Obstetrician and Gynecologist, author, professor at NYU and inventor of the Goldstein Catheter.

Pap Smear

A Pap smear (or Pap test), is a routine exam that checks for changes in the cells of the cervix. Pap smears are the best tool to identify abnormal, pre-cancerous or cancerous cells and provide immediate and effective treatment. We now understand that abnormal cervical cells are related to the HPV virus. There are over 100 strains of HPV. Virtually all sexually active women will be exposed to HPV but most clear the virus on their own.  Pap smear recommendations should be closely aligned with sexual history and number of partners not just age.

The number of cases of invasive cervical cancer in this country has fallen dramatically over the last 60 years mainly because of the Pap smear. The painless test is completed during the patient’s routine pelvic exam.

There has been much attention recently to the changes in guidelines for how often women should receive a Pap smear. New guidelines state that women should get their first Pap test at age 21 and have one every two years. Dr. Goldstein, however, continues to advocate for and perform Pap smears every year for his patients. He feels strongly that the benefit of a Pap smear – catching and preventing cervical cancer’s continued growth – deserves an annual test.

Patients hesitant to come in for an annual pap smear should keep in mind that is not the only reason to be seen by an OB/GYN on a regular basis. The annual appointment provides the opportunity for a pelvic exam, breast exam, blood pressure check and discuss concerns about bone health, vaginal health, contraception and menstrual function. A transvaginal ultrasound evaluation of ovaries and uterus may also be helpful.

Abnormal Pap Smear Results

Women who receive word that their annual pap smear results have come back with an abnormality should not jump to the worst possible conclusion. An abnormal result signifies a change in cervical cells, which can be caused by infection, inflammation, changes to your menstrual cycle, or in some cases pre-cancerous or cancerous cells. Dr. Goldstein will work with you to determine if further testing is needed. Additional testing to identify the abnormality includes:

  • Colposcopy: A colposcope is used to see the vaginal and cervical cells in detail
  • Endocervical curettage: A small spoon-shaped tool (curette) collects a sample of cells from the endocervical canal
  • Biopsy: A small sample of cervical tissue is removed and sent to a lab to be studied under a microscope.

If additional testing determines treatment of the abnormal cells is needed, Dr. Goldstein may recommend one of the following options:

  • Cyotherapy: Destroys abnormal tissue through freezing
  • Laser therapy: Destroys or removes abnormal cells with the use of a narrow beam of intense light
  • Conization: A cone-shaped piece of tissue is removed with a knife, laser or LEEP technique.

Dr. Goldstein will review these non-invasive treatment options, and others, as best suited to your needs. He is dedicated to working with women to identify and treat abnormal cervical cells before aggressive treatment is needed.

appointment request

Other Services

Menopause and Perimenopause

Menopause Menopausal women often have many questions, ranging from the signs and symptoms, treatment options and emotional support. Dr. Steven R. Goldstein, a widely renowned menopause expert, works closely with many women to educate them on the changes happening in their bodies, identify possible ...

Learn More

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Many women experience what they perceive as abnormal uterine bleeding at least once in their lives. Women in their 20s and early 30s often have unusual bleeding due to a hormonal imbalance. Abnormal uterine bleeding becomes more common as women near menopause. However, con...

Learn More

Gynecologic Ultrasounds

The Use of Ultrasounds to Diagnose Thick Uterine Lining, Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Ovarian Cysts Ultrasound is an important tool to determine if surgery is truly necessary for women who have been diagnosed with a thick uterine lining (post-menopausal), abnormal uterine bleeding (pre and post-m...

Learn More

Cancer Screenings

Gynecological Cancer Screenings Dr. Goldstein provides several different types of gynecological cancer screenings to his patients, including ovarian and cervical cancer. Ovarian Cancer Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women, according to the U.S. Library of National Medicine. ...

Learn More

Birth Control

There are many misconceptions about birth control pills. When Dr. Goldstein was a medical student, pills came in 80 and 50 microgram strengths of estrogen. By the time he was a resident, they were 50 and 35 micrograms. Most of his career, they have been 35, 30, 25 and 20 micrograms. Now they make a ...

Learn More